"There are two main sources of Stem cells: Embryonic Stem cells and Adult body tissues
Embryonic Stem Cells
At a very early stage of pregnancy, when sperm fertilizes an egg this leads to embryo formation.Embryonic Stem Cells
Around 3 to 5 days after a sperm fertilizes an egg, the embryo takes the form of Blastocyst or ball of cells
This blastocyst, cell mass of 150-200 cells just before implantation into uterus or womb consist of two parts
Inner cell mass: that will develop into full human body
Outer cell mass: that will become part of placenta
Inner cell mass is where Embryonic stem cells are found, scientists call these cells as Totipotent cells. Totipotent cells refer to the fact that these cells have total potential to develop into any cell in the body.
Most of embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that develop from egg fertilized in vitro in an In-Vitro fertilization clinic- and then donated for research purposes with informed consent of donors. They are not derived from eggs fertilized in women"s body. Use of embryonic tissue for Stem cell therapy comes with its own problems such as ethical issues, legal issues, and uncontrolled growth leading to tumor causing potential of embryonic cells.
Adult Stem Cells
A person"s body contains stem cells throughout their life. The body can use these stem cells to repair or heal itself whenever needed.
Adult stem cells are also called tissue-specific or somatic stem cells, they exist throughout the body from the time an embryo develops to adult human being.
These adult stem cells have limited potential of growing into tissue specific cells, unlike embryonic stem cells which can grow into any cell or tissue of our body. They remain in their own tissue state until the body needs them for a specific purpose, such as skin or intestinal lining cells.
During normal everyday life, our body is constantly renewing its tissues. In some parts of the body, such as the stomach linings and bone marrow- stem cells regularly divide to produce new body cells and tissues for maintenance and repair.
Stem cells are present inside various types of tissues. Scientists have found stem cells more commonly in tissues, including:Types of Stem Cells
Adipose tissue( fat )
blood and blood vessels
However, stem cells can be difficult to isolate from normal cells from our body. They can stay non-dividing and non-specific for years until the body summons them to repair or grow new tissue.
Adult stem cells can divide or self-renew indefinitely. This means they can generate various cell types from the originating organ or even regenerate the original organ, entirely.
This division and regeneration is underlying mechanism how a skin wound heals, or how an organ such as the liver, can repair and regrow itself after damage.
In the past, scientists believed adult stem cells could only differentiate based on their tissue of origin. However, some evidence now suggests that they can differentiate to become other cell types as well, known as Multipotent Stem cells.
It is the process of replacing, regenerating cells, tissues or organ to restore normal function. The body has a remarkable natural ability to heal itself. By facilitating or accelerating this process, we can initiate or support a healing process naturally, which routinely requires surgery. Examples of this injuries include menisci tears at knee Joint and rotator cuff tears at Shoulder joint.
Regenerative therapies, including platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained popularity in recent years after many sports related injures by famous sports athletes are treated by PRP or Stem cell therapy instead of traditional surgical methods for better long term outcomes. Some of these famous athletes are"
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